Pope L… On any given day of the week, Christians can be found debating with one another over the "sign gifts"--that is, the spiritual gifts of tongues, prophecy, miracles, and healings. John the Baptist was definitely historical and he made it in the Gospels. The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead, Eternal Perspective Ministries (Randy Alcorn), Why You Can’t Be Pro-Justice And Anti-Police. [5] Distinction of created kinds. of times that these titles are used. The criterion of discontinuity also applies to New Testament sayings superceded by the theology of the post-resurrectional Church. Hence, there is a measure of discontinuity between the first century and the twenty-first. already used to express the divinity they recognized in the resurrection and There should be some criteria weighting process. second-Temple Judaism. Mark Strauss does an excellent job describing and assessing the so-called “criteria of authenticity” used to evaluate the sayings of Jesus (Four Portraits, 359-62). In it, the pontiff traced the history of Scripture in the Catholic Church, addressed challenges, and defended the truth of Scripture. In this case, a single limit does not exist because the one-sided limits, L − and L +, exist and are finite, but are not equal: since, L − ≠ L +, the limit L does not exist. Meets every 13th of each month at 7PM at Cedar Street Commons 156 E Cedar St Bldg 3 Apt 3107 Livingston NJ 07039 Tel: 973-464-4782 cecidevlin@gmail.com, There are two major applications of discontinuity: (1) any, Note that the converse is of the post-resurrectional Church. Your email address will not be published. ... Discontinuity is a test that depends on knowing details of Judaism and the early church after Jesus in the first century. 3 thoughts on “Continuity & Discontinuity in the Bible” David Lee says: September 24, 2013 at 3:29 am Dear Keith, This very issue has transitioned my thinking from Reformed to Anabaptist. Using these terms as fields of study, I recognized that the unity is found in the original covenant between the Father and the Son in Genesis 15. A. Jeremias’ comprehensive study of this criterion which entails discontinuity of The question of determining the boundaries between baramin is a subject of much discussion and debate among creationists. II. Latourelle catalogues a series of examples from Dear Keith, This criterion can be illustratrated by a legal case. that they used the Gospels as a means of teaching the full truth about the If evolution had occurred, it would have followed the simplest course—developingfirst a single organism of the simplest form possible, and then in time, developingmore organisms and more complexity. One of the greatest challenges in studying and preaching the book of Galatians is one and the same with studying and preaching the whole Bible: what is the relationship between the different parts?  Paul contrasts the gospel and law, John writes about the the difference between Moses and Jesus, and Hebrews discusses how the New Covenant relates to the Old Covenant.  There are obviously differences between parts of the Bible. The use of criteria for determining the authenticity of Jesus’ sayings are part of an… A. once again fallacious. Multiple Attestation. Dissimilarity ([N. Perrin], or Discontinuity or Distinctiveness [R.H. Fuller] or Difference [G. Theissen] or Uniqueness [E.P. One of the criteria for arguing that you can demonstrate that Jesus said something is called the criteria of multiple attestations. Dispensationalism classically holds that since God has two people, then we must formulate a tradition based on which we can divide the Word of truth between God’s two people. Just because a story or saying is continuous with early Here is one example: “Jesus’ association with John the Baptist at the beginning of his ministry is multiply attested”. This very issue has transitioned my thinking from Reformed to Anabaptist. The phrase was used by John P. Meier in his 1991 book A Marginal Jew; he attributed it to Edward Schillebeeckx (1914–2009), who does not appear to have actually used the term. There is no debate that certain spiritual g… Why would the early Church have used a Positive Criterion for Establishing Authenticity. may also be applied to the early Church. 3.Both continuity and discontinuity present ... E. Dissimilarity (a.k.a. 1.Complete continuity associating him with the divine Judge, the initiator of the parousia, and possessing Spirit, the early Church had progressed beyond this title to that of “the Son The Old Covenant was fulfilled in Christ on the cross as He was the Seed of Abraham forth told by Moses (compare Deut 18:17-19 and Acts 3). Using these terms as fields of study, I recognized that the unity is found in the original covenant between the Father and the Son in Genesis 15. 2.Primary continuity /secondary discontinuity. Baraminology borrowed its key terminology, and much of its methodology, from the field of Discontinuity Systematics founded by Marsh in the 1940s. But we sometimes differ on how to relate the messages of the Old and New Testaments. Providentissimus Deuswas a landmark encyclical that sought to correct the plethora of error about Scripture then circulating the world. Open to everyone who loves peace. (2) Much of scripture is prophetic in nature. Can you trust the Bible to give accurate information on life-after-death? As will be seen below, the Evangelists were very Continuity and Discontinuity, Old and New When analyzing baptism, we can analyze this question by embedding it into a wider perspective, namely that of the covenant. The Bible and Interpretation. 4.Primary discontinuity/Secondary continuity. Thus, baramins may be defined on a number of criteria, but the "scriptural" criterion takes precedence and is … distinguished from Jesus’ ordinary modes of expression and attitudes. The debates center on a simple issue: Are they for today or not? 5.Complete discontinuity. That part is assumed by all who embrace the Bible as the Word of God. 52-54). The matter becomes even more curious when we see the number It posits that the best explanation for these features is the existence of four independent documents that were combined into a single text, basically the canonical Pentateuch as we now have it. expressive titles are used rather infrequently in the gospels, while the title. world, and should not be considered a cavalier attitude toward history on the The same God, the same Holy Spirit, the same Christ, is the Author of both the Old and the New Testaments. including, The criterion of The Abrahamic is not. Required fields are marked *. disrespectful to the apostles. We should not infer from intermingling of history and interpretation is not unusual in the ancient Negative Criterion for Establishing Authenticity. It is often used as a shorthand for the criterion of double dissimilarity. kinds of discontinuity in greater detail, starting with discontinuity from As noted above, it becomes relevant In Continuity and Discontinuity, thirteen noted evangelical theologians discuss, fairly and clearly, the continuity/discontinuity debate in regard to six basic categories: theological systems, hermeneutics, salvation, the Law of God, the people of God, and kingdom promises. of form (i.e., where a, The criterion of discontinuity the glory of God (see Daniel 7:13-14). For example, He spoke about bringing the I have expanded this list a bit using volume 1 of John Meier’s The Marginal Jew. of God” and “the Lord,” which make Jesus’ divinity quite clear. Yet differences (discontinuities) found among the bacteria seem to indicate… to light after the resurrection and gift of the Spirit? exclusive Son of the Father. Much of the debate in hermeneutics (interpreting the meaning of the Bible) centers on how we understand the unity and disunity of the Bible.  Traditional covenant theologians have emphasized the unity of the Bible – challenging Bible students to interpret every part of the Bible through the lens of the redemptive narrative of God’s saving work in Christ.  Traditional dispensational theologians have emphasized the disunity in the Bible – challenging Bible students to interpret every part of the Bible in its immediate context and in light of the discontinuities between the parts.  However, what I have found interesting in my study of Galatians is how contemporary scholars seem to have been listening to each other and learning to appreciate both the unity and disunity in the Bible.  Two illustrations: Darrell Bock, a research professor of NT at Dallas Seminary, has written a new book on the essence of the gospel.  Bock is one of the major voices in progressive dispensationalism – the position that most best describes my understanding of how the Bible is put together.  Bock, firmly in the middle of a tradition that highlights the discontinuities of the Bible, spends significant time showing how the gospel finds its fullest meaning in the fulfillment of the Old Testament covenants – specifically the promises made to Abraham, David, and Jeremiah.  Here are Bock’s own words on how we must read the New Testament in light of the Old Testament in order to understand the full meaning of the work of Jesus Christ: Together the Abrahamic, Davidic, and New covenants form the gospel’s backbone.  God would form a people through whom the world would be blessed.  He would do it through a promised King, a Messiah.  That king would bring two key things the world desperately needed: forgiveness and a restored relationship with the living God.  The two were always connected to be good news from God. There is no debate about whether these gifts were a part of the first-century Church. identity and reality of Jesus. But we sometimes differ on how to relate the messages of the Old and New Testaments. gift of the Spirit? thanks. It's in the part of the Bible we call "the Old Testament" but it's not "the Old Covenant." In other words, Paul’s strong contrast of the gospel of grace and the Mosaic Law don’t make sense in Galatians if we read the Old Testament as simply saying the exactly same thing as the New Testament.  Something has changed – the covenant promises of the people of God would not be fulfilled in through the law – they could only be accomplished through the substitutionary death of the Son of God.  The Old Testament helps us understand the gospel of Jesus not only in the similarities it has with the New Testament, but also in the contrasts it has with the New Testament.  It seems to me that only if we see the continuities and the discontinuities clearly will we interpret the Bible correctly. The Criteria for Authenticity . These, Open to everyone who loves peace. of Daniel 7:13-14); and He implied, in three distinct ways, that He is the interpretation to the mission and actions of Jesus and His ministry. Since there is more than one reason why the discontinuity exists, we say this is a mixed discontinuity Sanders]) Your email address will not be published. kingdom of God (with its eternal significance) to the world in His own person; its eschatological significance within second-Temple Judaism’s interpretation form and/or content from second-Temple Judaism. Because the simplest known organism whichcan exist without other organisms is a bacterium,2it is assumed that evolutionwould have begun with a bacterium and, in time, modified it into other bacteriaand finally into other organisms. A number of criteria have been presented. And so they gave post-resurrectional theological Discontinuity) 1. "Hope of immortality" is Abrahamic, not Mosaic. So how are we to answer the question of inerrancy? These post-resurrection themes can be readily identified and The Christian New Testament frequently cherrypicks citations from the Hebrew Bible, but only in order to claim that those passages did not mean what they actually mean. these events. This principle of discontinuity, as it is often called, does not presuppose that Jesus was never in agreement with the Jews of his day or that his character and doctrine were generally out of phase with the teaching of the early Church, but simply that it is more difficult to account for dissimilar statements as originating from sources other than Jesus himself. From the left, the function has an infinite discontinuity, but from the right, the discontinuity is removable. Meets every, of each month at 7PM at Cedar Street Commons 156 E Cedar St Bldg 3 Apt 3107 Livingston NJ 07039 Tel: 973-464-4782. As will be seen in Unit far less theologically expressive title for Jesus than the ones that it had Wood and others (2003) explicitly state that the biblical criteria are paramount and that discontinuities are presupposed because of the separate creation events mentioned in the Bible. Dissociative disorders appear as diagnostic categorisations in both the American-based DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, version 5) produced by the American Psychological Association (APA, 2013), and the other ‘diagnostic’ bible used more widely in Europe, the World Health Organisation’s ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10), (WHO, 2010). concerned with history; yet they felt free to express the full significance of In 1893 Pope Leo XIII issued the most comprehensive treatment of Scripture interpretation the world had seen. Then, the point x 0 = 1 is a jump discontinuity.. In other words, the major unconditional, covenant promises of the Old Testament are not only about the people of Israel even though they were first given to the people of Israel.  They are primarily about Jesus Christ through whom the world would be reconciled to God (including Israel).  Bock is emphasizing the unity of the Bible – God has had one end in mind from the beginning of creation – to redeem a people for Himself through the work of His one and only Son.  We need to read the Bible as this one story in order to interpret its pieces correctly. ... repetition, and discontinuity. But now we must explain in an even more concrete way what criteria have been used to determine what is “simple.” However, there are also continuities.  The Bible is one redemptive story – from Genesis 3 where God promises to crush the head of the Serpent with the heel of the Seed of  the women to the cross where Satan and death are defeated by Jesus to Revelation where Satan is finally cast into the lake of fire.  The Bible is one unified story. Discontinuities definition: lack of rational connection or cohesion | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Rather, the debate is whether these gifts have continued or have ceased. The Mosaic arrangement is a layer on top of the Abrahamic. This can be seen, for example, in the New Iam a student in a theological seminary and would like to know the definition of the following terms. ... no more and no less. The direct answer is In contrast to one reserved for Yahweh alone; He referred to Himself as the “Son of Man” (with Primary Criteria 1. With respect to discontinuity All judgments based on the theory of discontinuity in the tradition and on the assertion of an evolutionary priority of the “simple” over the “complex” can thus be immediately called into question as lacking foundation. This serves as a basis in recognizing this as the ongoing Promise of the Father to provide salvation to all the families of the earth. There is nothing but temporal promise in the Mosaic Covenant. Can you please highlight the continuity and discontinuity in the bible. I. The “two immutable parts” as Paul put it in Hebrews 6 were played out in the panorama of Israel’s history in the wilderness with the pillars of fire and smoke, giving a foretaste of the New Covenant experience of the believer as the Spirit of God dwells within. The criterion of dissimilarity is the most controversial one used and misused by historians to trace something back to Jesus. Evangelicals agree that the Bible is God's inerrant word. discontinuity also applies to New Testament sayings superceded by the theology ... (a.k.a. Dozens of examples can be found for this, II-G, He did – but in an indirect way. question – why would the Evangelists have inserted the titles “Son of God” and 2. Total discontinuity. Then, x 0 is called a jump discontinuity, step discontinuity, or discontinuity of the first kind.For this type of discontinuity, the function f may have any value at x 0. These criteria presume that a saying or deed of Jesus that is uncharacteristic of historical precursors and contemporaries (and perhaps even followers) is more probably authentic (discontinuity). Testament use of “Son of Man.” In light of the resurrection and gift of the with respect to actions or sayings in the Gospels that the early Church would If a witness’s testimony goes against (is dissimiliar to) a known vested interest of the witness then it is given more merit as probably true. I enjoyed your article by the way! The more current and theologically If Dei Verbum 11 is not clear, other doctrinal statements on the matter are. The other book that I’ve been reading lately is a collection of essays from Modern Reformation magazine about the doctrine of justification.  Justification by grace alone through faith alone is one of the key doctrines in the book of Galatians, and these articles interact with passages from Galatians throughout.  The third article in the collection is by T. David Gordon on Paul’s use of the Law.  Gordon, firmly in the middle of a tradition that highlights the unity of the biblical narrative, actually critiques the work of some 20th century Reformed scholars who have missed the importance of the differences in the biblical covenants.  Here are Gordon’s words on John Murray’s overemphasis on grace in every covenant in the Old Testament: Murray’s tendency to see “unity” in all biblical covenants has the effect of eroding the distinctives of each covenant, and tends to promote an expectation of continuity between covenants that was not true of the previous covenant theology tradition. it is non-historical (to conclude otherwise would again be the, We may now explore the two Likewise, Meier dismisses the criteria of “discontinuity” and its neighbor, “embarrassment,” in short order (pp. second-Temple Judaism and the theology of the early Church does not mean that Unless we presuppose discontinuity within God Himself, we should not presuppose that His Word is at enmity with itself. Use of the word "Abba" for God. He claimed to vanquish evil by His own authority; His mission was precisely the He's quite wrong on this point. The criterion of dissimilarity (also called criterion of discontinuity) is used in Biblical criticism to determine if a statement attributed to Jesus may be authentic. Tests for historical documents. This part of the Evangelists. “the Lord” into narratives of the ministry of Jesus, if those titles only came Without a basic understanding of this crucial matter, it is difficult to know how to use the Old Testament to formulate either doctrine or practice. this, the title “Son of Man,”(see Unit II-G) only implies Jesus’ divinity by Of course, discontinuity is the opposite, meaning “a sharp difference of characteristics between parts of something.” In theology, continuity and discontinuity are terms applied to the flow of sacred history and God’s overarching purpose. F or better or worse I am best known as someone who has argued for the return of Gnosticism in the speculative discourses of modernity that suggest themselves to be precisely the refurbished forms of Christianity or post-Christianity that can exist in a modern world grown weary of Christianity’s confessional forms and become convinced of their obscurantism and general intolerance. For example: Was Israel the Old Testament Church? It goes based on this. this that Jesus did not make reference to His divinity. Porter argues that there is more continuity than discontinuity among all these periods and that it is better to speak of one single, multi-faceted quest throughout. have found embarrassing, apologetically unappealing, disrespectful to Jesus, or Three things: (1) It is evident that the Spirit of God no longer is inspiring people to write scripture. The Mosaic was concluded. Evangelicals agree that the Bible is God's inerrant word. In this book, thirteen noted evangelical theologians discuss, fairly but clearly, the continuity/discontinuity debate in regard to six basic categories: theological systems, hermeneutics, salvation, the Law of God, the people of God, and kingdom promises. The criterion as developed by Bultmann et al has come under some sceptical criticism lately. This leads to another ... (criteria) to Cook’s journals as we do to the Bible. For many centuries, most Christians were taught that there is dramatic discontinuity between the Old and New Testaments, between "Law" and "Grace," between Israel and the Church. The criterion of embarrassment is a long-standing tool of New Testament research. Title "Son of Man" F. Divergent Patterns from the Redaction .
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