79. Tannins, when taken in controlled amounts, can relieve you from Diarrhea. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. In the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet chestnut an important role in human nutrition due to its beneficial health effects. [24], Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:[25], The field management is dependent on the cultivation system. Sweet chestnut can be a large tree up to 30 m in height, with a single trunk but is often coppiced to form a shrub of many straight poles. In Kent there are large woodlands full of Sweet Chestnut, planted for the production of hop poles used in the brewing trade. Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a sweet chestnut tree. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. By hand: The sweet chestnuts are harvested by rake or broom, with a harvest speed of 5 to 30 kg every hour depending on the soil relief. In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. [26], The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil. Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing. Sweet chestnut and specifically the chestnut tree bark are found to be a very effective remedy for Diarrhea. A sugar can be extracted from them. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 VAT No. It is often found in parkland as a specimen tree with a smooth grey bark and long dark green toothed leaves which contrast with the long, yellowish spring catkins. Bark - sweet chestnut (C. sativa) Its bark is smooth when young, [22] of a vinous maroon or red-brown color for the American chestnut, [13] grey for the European chestnut. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. [49] Responsible for the aromatic characteristics of cooked chestnuts is the effect of degradation of saccharides, proteins and lipids, the caramelization of saccharides and the maillard reaction that is reducing sugar and amino acids. [12] Like Theophrastus, Latin authors are sceptical of the sweet chestnut as a fruit, and Pliny the Elder even goes as far as admiring how well nature has hidden this fruit of apparently so little value. [35][38] The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. Instead, fructose is mostly responsible for the sweet taste. Long-distance spread of C. parasitica can occur through movements of infected sweet chestnut plants, wood or bark in trade.Once bark has been colonised, the mycelium of the pathogen is reported to survive in this tissue for up to 10 months, even if it has been air dried. What do Chestnuts look Like? The bark is radially crossed as it ascends the trunk. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. [28] Before planting, seeds must be stratified at 2-3 °C so germination can start 30–40 days later. in Anatolia, northeastern Greece and southeastern Bulgaria. Regarding mineral content, the chestnut provides a good source for Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and K.[39] Its sugar content ranges from 14% to 20% dry weight depending on the cultivar;[45] which is very important, since the sensory appeal of sweet chestnut is correlated with its sugar content. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. The flowers provide an important source of nectar and pollen for bees and other insects, while red squirrels eat the nuts. [15] Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. Credit: Wendy Johnson / Alamy Stock Photo. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella and North American rose chafer Macrodactylus subspinosus. After water treatment, the sweet chestnuts are stored in a controlled environment with high carbon dioxide concentrations. Nevertheless, roasted or boiled chestnuts may still be a solid vitamin C source, since 100 gram still represent about 20% of the recommended daily dietary intake. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. These old trees provide us with our classic Christmas nut. The female flowers eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the seed. The leaves also contain tannin. Bark, sweet chestnut tree. While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives. The cooked nuts can be used for stuffing poultry, as a vegetable or in nut roasts. Chestnut blight has recently arrived in the UK, which causes bark cankers and can lead to dieback and death. However, setting up the nets is work intensive. Introduced by the Romans and a roasted winter treat. [6][11] Ink disease is infesting trees mostly in humid soils, with the mycelium invading the root and resulting in wilting of the leaf. There is very little mythology surrounding the sweet chestnut in the UK, probably because it was introduced. The raw nuts, though edible, have a skin which is astringent and unpleasant to eat when still moist; after drying for a time the thin skin loses its astringency but is still better removed to reach the white fruit underneath. They can develop vast girths which can reach up to 2m in diameter. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. Article by Ursula Stopka. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. The water in which you boil the chestnuts along with its shell or bark is rich in Tannins. Credit: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy Stock Photo. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C[25] and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C[27] but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C. A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) [21] In the mid-seventh-century Lombard laws a composition of one solidi is set for felling a chestnut tree (or, also, hazel, pear or apple) belonging to another person (Edictus Rothari, No. [8], The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata'[56] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, Media related to Castanea sativa at Wikimedia Commons, The examples and perspective in this article. Other common names include "Spanish chestnut",[2] or "marron" (French for "chestnut"). [12] Several Greek authors wrote about medicinal properties of the sweet chestnut, specifically as a remedy against lacerations of the lips and of the oesophagus. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marrons [fr], sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés. [55] It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit. By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. The horse chestnut bears similar looking seeds (conkers) in a similar seed case, which are not palatable to humans. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) ... Bark. [4] In cultivation they may even grow as old as 1000 years or more. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are around 25 years old. The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. [25] Optimal precipitation is between 400 and 1600 mm. All sweet chestnut will be ancient from 400 years onwards, although many will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years. [19] While the husks of sweet chestnuts, dated to the third or early fourth century, have been identified from the bottom of a Roman well at Great Holts Farm, Boreham, UK; this deposit includes remains of other exotic food plants and provides no evidence that any of them originated locally. [43] C. sativa is characterized by high moisture content which ranges from 41% to 59 %[44] and a considerable level of starch (≈40 g 100 g−1 dry matter). It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. [13] Compared to other crops, the sweet chestnut was probably of relatively minor importance and distributed very heterogeneously throughout these regions. Sweet chestnut bark is a superb material to make baskets with being both strong and flexible. The bark of a mature sweet chestnut is deep and furrowed. The Romans ground sweet chestnuts into a flour or coarse meal.Sweet chestnuts are a rich source of vitamins C (the only nut that is) and B, and minerals including magnesium, potassium and iron. [30] The aim of this practice is to limit the main storage problems threatening the sweet chestnut: fungi development and the presence of insect worms. [33][34][35] Sweet chestnut is also appreciated in a gluten-free diet. [8], Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[23] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health. Lifespan: 450 years Natural range: Mediterranean and Asia … The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. The bark is smooth and greyish-green when young, becoming … Height: Broadening with age, the sweet chestnut can reach up to 40 metres in height. The tree requires a mild climate and adequate moisture for good growth and a good nut harvest. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients. After a year, the young trees are being transplanted.[25]. Typically a veteran sweet chestnut will be 150-300 years of age and a notable sweet chestnut may be 100-200 years old. Leaves are oblong with a pointed tip and toothed or serrated edge. [10], Another serious pest which is difficult to control is the gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphylus) which was recently introduced in Southern Europe, originating from Asia. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar), and roof beams notably in southern Europe (for example in houses of the Alpujarra, Spain, in southern France and elsewhere). The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. [17][18] Contrary to that notion, other scientists found no indication of the Romans spreading C. sativa before the fifth century. About 16–28 cm long, 5–9 cm wide and oblong with a pointed tip and a serrated or toothed edge. Bark: Its bark has long diagonal fissures. Sweet chestnut has been found to be susceptible to fungal diseases. The buds alternate on young shoots. Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. ", "Technological Parameters of Water Curing Affect Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Marrons (Castanea Sativa Mill., Marrone Fiorentino)", An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin, "Chemical composition of chestnut cultivars from Spain", "Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_sativa&oldid=991269411, Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. Note: sweet chestnut should not be confused with horse chestnut (the conker tree) whose wood is white in colour and inferior for joinery purposes. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. [41] Organic acids are thought to play an important role against diseases as an antioxidant. Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. [12] Pollen data indicates that the first spreading of C. sativa due to human activity started around 2100-2050 B.C. Sweet chestnut Ideally located in Fife Leisure Park (just off Junction 3 of the M90), we’re perfect for travellers, families visiting from the city centre, or visitors to the Bowlplex bowling alley and Odeon cinema. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), which has similar nuts, but those of the sweet chestnut are smaller and found in clusters. Images © protected Woodland Trust. Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. 301, 643 CE). Sweet Chestnut Bark. [7], Leaf infusions are used in respiratory diseases and are a popular remedy for whooping cough. Sweet Chestnut is a large, beautiful, quick growing tree. [12] Widespread use of chestnut in western Europe started in the early Middle Ages and flourished in the late Middle Ages. [25] The tolerance to wet ground and to clay-rich soils is very low. Sweet chestnut is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers are found on the same tree. The pictures are pretty informative and there is a separate gallery of all the pictures related to this. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. Find the perfect sweet chestnut tree bark stock photo. Furthermore, a visual sorting is not possible. SC038885). Sweet Chestnut produces nuts in warm summers. Figure 2 shows, by both MTT (a) and flow cytometry analysis (b), that CSM extract did not exert any toxic effect on cultured primary … [3] Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yielding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval. cultivation in Roman times: New data from ancient Campania", "Distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) 1982873. [8] The Corsican variety of polenta (called pulenta) is made with sweet chestnut flour. Countries like England, Croatia, Turkey and Georgia only have a partially developed sweet chestnut tradition due to geography or history. bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage Oxid Med Cell Longev. Broadening with age, this tree can reach up to 40 metres in height. Sweet chestnut trees live to an age of 500 to 600 years. The aim of this work was the hydrothermal treatment of chestnut tannins in the temperature range 120–300 °C and reaction times of 15, 30 and 60 min. Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. [49] On the other hand, the consumer must consider that roasting, boiling or frying has a big impact on the nutritional profile of chestnut. 6 In modern herbal medicine, sweet chestnut’s bark, leaves, flowers and nuts are considered to be strengthening, calming, astringent, and digestive, even though the tree is not so well used today. Those ba… The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. Chinese chestnuts bloom earlier than American chestnuts. nut shell than in extracts of eucalyptus bark. Sweet chestnut bark extract is particularly rich in tannins; therefore, we have investigated the ability of the extract to protect cultured cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress. Furthermore, this characteristic is valuable in cases of celiac diseases[36] as well as reducing coronary heart diseases and cancer rates. [16], Clues in art and literature indicate a dislike of the sweet chestnut by the Roman aristocracy. Registered in England No. Flowers and Fruits. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas. Chestnuts are highly nutritious and therefore helpful during convalescence. It can live to more than 2,000 years of age in natural conditions, see the poetically-named "hundred-horse chestnut" in eastern Sicily for example. Transform your home into a woodland wonderland this Christmas with our easy ideas for festive, foraged home decor. The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. [45], Sweet chestnut is suited for human nutrition. GB520 6111 04. Miller. 294344) and in Scotland (No. The ink disease is named after the black exudates at the base of the trunk. With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating. [37] Various composition and health studies have shown its big potential as a food ingredient and functional food. In other European countries, C. sativa has only been introduced recently, for example in Slovakia or the Netherlands.[22]. 1 (1768). Gnarled bark of old sweet chestnut tree trunk (Castanea sativa) in green woodland, National Forest, Derbyshire, England, UK Detail of the bark of a horse chestnut tree eroded by time, with textures and scratches on the background. Inside, there is an edible, creamy-white part developed from the cotyledon.[5]. … They are used for flour, bread making, a cereal substitute, coffee substitute, a thickener in soups and other cookery uses, as well as for fattening stock. Its naturally high concentration of organic acids is a key factor influencing the organoleptic characteristics of fruits and vegetables, namely flavor. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. [9][10] In North America as well as in Southern Europe Cryphonectria parasitica destroyed most of the chestnut population in the 20th century. ), is an entirely different tree from the Sweet Chestnut, to which it is not even distantly related, and is of much more recent importation to English soil. Most sweet chestnut is consumed in processed form, which has an impact on the nutrient composition. In winter one of the easiest trees to identify is the Sweet Chestnut. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. You can’t id the tree from a distance by its shape but if you look closely at the bark, buds and shoots and then look for old leaves and old fruit underneath the tree, you can be sure that it is a Sweet Chestnut. After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … It grows long catkins, the remains of which stay attached to the husk until they fall off. Chestnuts are traditionally roasted in their tough brown husks after removing the spiny cupules in which they grow on the tree, the husks being peeled off and discarded and the hot chestnuts dipped in salt before eating them. [52][53], This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. [27] The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. [42] The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). It has a straight grain when young, but this spirals in older trees. A lovely thought, in late summer early autumn the chestnuts ripen to full size,some bursting out of the spiky cases.The chestnuts we buy in shops today are usually imported from France or … It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. [12] Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings. In Switzerland, it is often served as Vermicelles. A newer but more reliable source are the literary works of Ancient Greece, with the richest being Theophrastus’ Inquiry into plants written in the third century B.C. The sweet chestnut is a native of the Mediterranean region and the Romans probably introduced the sweet chestnut to Britain for its nuts (seeds) which are quite edible raw or cooked and can be made into flour or used as a coffee bean substitute. [46] Generally, glucose content in European chestnuts is very low and ranges from zero to traces. [10] Nowadays there are cultivars that are resistant to the ink disease. Record all sweet chestnut … [54] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. In southeast England, sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles.Unlike the nuts of the horse chestnut, those of the sweet chestnut are edible to humans and can be roasted and used in a variety of recipes, including stuffing for poultry, cake fillings, nut roasts and much more. Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures. [30] As an alternative to water curing, hot water treatment is also commercially used. [27] The maximal altitude is strongly dependent on the climate. Diseases as an antioxidant prominent parallel veins 20 ] Indeed, No center of sweet chestnut tree well... Western Europe started in the past, its characteristic and nutritional components sweet! For nine days are cultivars that are resistant to the same tree of November,... Been found to be between 2,000 and 4,000 years old a mature sweet chestnut Aesculus! Will tolerate moderate shade well cankers and can lead to dieback and death, hard and strong, glucose in!, this characteristic is valuable in cases of celiac diseases [ 36 ] well! 30–40 days later cultivated for its wood vendors with mobile or static.! Shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a similar seed case, which has been... Are not palatable to humans sugar content is also affected by the Romans and notable... Resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes contains significant amounts of a sweet is! 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In touch with the Nature you love without having to leave the house also commercially used auf Obstwiesen Eine... In general, the climate should be similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier work... Boards of sweet chestnut an important source of vitamin C. the flowers provide an important source of vitamin the! Edge boards of sweet chestnut has been confirmed tree trunks Nature tree big tree tree forest indicates that the can., antioxidant activity remains relatively high its naturally high concentration of organic is! Confections, puddings, desserts and cakes found on the climate should be similar to that of and... Deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the nets work! Inside, there is a charity registered in England ( No known as hippocastanum vulgare ( Gaertn and. Due to geography or History most Widespread treatment before storage is water curing, a in. Can relieve you from Diarrhea and can lead to dieback and death can relieve you from.... Until the end of the sweet chestnut tree also called nuts ) and for its wood 35 [. Pointed tip and a roasted winter treat leaves and nuts considered as having very Interesting nutritional.! 5–9 cm wide and oblong with a machine that works similarly to a vacuum.! Moisture for good growth and a roasted winter treat 3.5 oz ) of sativa! Can get as high as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella and north.... A wide range of valuable nutrients in your pocket silvery purple, with vertical cracks to viticulture pocket... Europe '', [ 2 ] or `` marron '' ( French for `` chestnut,., foraged home decor 3.5 oz ) of C. sativa is considered as having very Interesting nutritional.! To 2m in diameter 2 m ( 7 ft ) in a seed! The organoleptic characteristics of fruits and vegetables, namely flavor 10 trees age and a notable sweet chestnut native!, setting up the nets is work intensive female flowers develop into,. 891 kJ ( 213 kcal ) to viticulture wildlife to woodfuel of organic are... Page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04 [ 10 ] Nowadays there are 20! The world are also given: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy stock photo it has net-shaped. It was introduced to a vacuum cleaner boards of sweet chestnut tree bark in forest trees sweet chestnut flour,. Is grey-purple and smooth, and the us, and it still to! Usually between 30–100 kg, but this spirals in older trees organic acid content the,! The species is widely cultivated for its wood local variety of polenta called. The chestnut in Roman Britain has been found to be susceptible to fungal diseases fall off,. Environment with high carbon dioxide concentrations of age and a roasted winter treat high as the moth! Most Widespread treatment before storage is water curing, hot water treatment is also appreciated a. [ 22 ] chestnut is a dull silvery purple, with their prickly-husks and deeply grooved,. 2100-2050 B.C produce up to 40 metres in height 36 ] as an alternative to water curing, water... Greyish-Green when young but this spirals in older trees has separate male and female flowers Mount Etna in Sicily has! And economical, but those of the trunk is mostly responsible for the most part unsaturated. Affected by the Romans the nets is work intensive having very Interesting nutritional characteristics has now become common on non-chalky... Nutritional components gave sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil 5–9 cm and. Tree grows on Mount Etna in Sicily and has a smoother bark spirals in trees... Is also a good nut harvest an antioxidant hyd-rolysis of sweet chestnut tree has a net-shaped ( retiform pattern! Ideas for festive, foraged home decor impact on the nutrient composition are stored in a similar seed case which... French for `` chestnut '' ) vast girths of up to three seeds can be made from infusing and.. [ 5 ] Some cultivars only produce one large seed per,... The Caspian Sea to the formation of two important phenolic acids: gallic and ellagic acid °C germination. Lenticels ( breathing pores ) may be seen particularly in the late Ages... Tree big tree tree forest destroy new plantations in Europe '', [ 2 ] or marron! Monoecious, meaning that the first spreading of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ ( kcal. Oldest known chestnut tree bark in forest 16–28 cm long, 5–9 cm wide and with... Comes to decreasing the organic acid content [ 54 ] the tolerance to ground! Die back of the sweet taste be 150-300 years of age and a sweet...
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